Phosphate Group Definition
One phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms make up the chemical compound phosphate, PO43-. A phosphate group is formed when it attaches to a carbon molecule. In addition to DNA and RNA, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides energy to cells.
Cell membranes are made up of phospholipids, which are formed by phosphotates. Especially in freshwater ecosystems, phosphate is a valuable resource.
Functions of Phosphate Groups
Part of Nucleic Acids
The genetic material of all living things, DNA and RNA, is composed of nucleic acids. Nucleotides are composed of nitrogenous bases, sugars, and phosphate groups. Each nucleotide’s backbone is composed of a 5-carbon sugar group and a phosphate group.
Two more phosphate groups are attached to nucleotides when they are not attached to another nucleotide to form DNA or RNA.
The phosphorylation of proteins enables them to perform specific functions in cells. Proteins are activated by phosphorylation, which adds a phosphate group. Every form of life undergoes protein phosphorylation. Proteins become inactive when their phosphate groups are removed through dephosphorylation.
Part of Energy Molecules
In cells, ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the main source of energy. ATP is composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups, and its energy is carried in the chemical bonds between the phosphates. Energy is released when these bonds are broken. Phosphorylation of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) produces ATP.
Other energy molecules containing phosphate groups include guanosine triphosphate (GTP), cytidine triphosphate (CTP), and uridine triphosphate (UTP).
Part of Phospholipids
A cell’s membrane is composed primarily of phospholipids. Phospholipids are composed of lipid molecules and phosphate groups. There are many phospholipids arranged in rows to form a phospholipid bilayer, a double layer of phospholipids.
In membranes such as the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope that surrounds the nucleus, this bilayer is the main component. The semipermeable membrane allows only certain molecules to pass through it and enter or exit the cell.
As a Buffer
In cells, phosphate acts as a buffer. Buffers keep a substance’s pH neutral, not too acidic or basic. In biological research, phosphate-buffered saline is often used as a buffer solution containing water, salt, and phosphate, because most biological activities require neutral conditions.
In freshwater environments, phosphorus limits the growth of plants and animals. Phosphorus-containing molecules, such as phosphates, can cause plankton and plants to grow, which are then eaten by zooplankton and fish, eventually reaching humans. Phosphates will initially increase the number of plankton and fish, but too much will limit other nutrients that are important for survival, like oxygen.
A depletion of oxygen is called eutrophication, and it can cause aquatic animals to die. Human activities such as wastewater treatment, industrial discharges, and fertilizer use in agriculture can increase phosphorus levels.
In the Body
Bones and teeth contain approximately 85% of the body’s phosphorus. It is calcium phosphate that gives teeth and bones their hard structure. Besides calcium, phosphorus is the second-most common element in the body, and it is important not to have too much or too little. Grain products, milk, and protein-rich foods contain phosphorus.
Related Biology Terms
- Phosphorus is a chemical element that forms phosphate with oxygen. An atom of phosphorus has an atomic number of 15 and is represented by the letter P.
- As a building block of DNA and RNA, nucleotides contain phosphate groups attached to 5-carbon sugars and nitrogenous bases.
- The main energy molecule in cells is Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which consists of an adenosine molecule attached to three phosphate groups.
- Cell membranes are composed of phospholipids, which are lipids attached to phosphate groups.